In July 2012, Mali referred the situation in its territory to the ICC in response to an armed conflict in the north between government forces and various rebel groups. The ICC preliminary examination led the ICC to formally open an investigation.
Following post-election violence in 2010-11, an ICC investigation was opened in the situation of Côte d'Ivoire. Its former President and Minister of youth are defendants in an ongoing ICC trial in The Hague.
After the 2007 elections in Kenya, widespread violence ensued, resulting in over 1000 dead, 600,000 displaced and hundreds sexually assaulted. In March 2010, the ICC started its investigation into alleged crimes committed during the post-election period.
Although Sudan is not a party to the Rome Statute, Darfur fell under ICC jurisdiction in March 2005 after the UN Security Council referred the situation to the ICC prosecutor. The investigation has led to five ICC cases and heightened tensions.
Former Congolese vice-president and militia leader Jean-Pierre Bemba was convicted by the ICC in 2016 for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Central African Republic. Sentenced to 18 years’ imprisonment. Reparations pending.
In 2004, Uganda invited the ICC to investigate an ongoing decades-long conflict between the Lord's Resistance Army and the government. In 2005, the ICC issued arrest warrants for five senior LRA members. One of them, Ongwen, is currently on trial.
The conflict in the DRC is one of the world's deadliest since World War II. The ICC's first ever investigation opened in 2004 and has focused on the leaders of several armed militia and rebel groups suspected of war crimes and crimes against humanity.